E-Numbers & Food Additives

This is not an authoritative list, in either sense. The SCD information comes from personal experience, Breaking the Vicious Cycle and common sense. Please do not take it as gospel, if in doubt - don’t eat it. If you have any improvements or suggestions, please email me. More comprehensive information (from wikipedia) on e-numbers can be found here.

I have added links from substance names and enumbers to wikipedia. Many of these articles don’t exist yet - feel free to create them. The substance links tend to work better than the Enumber ones at the moment. I will endevour to (slowly) fix these links by adding to wikipedia.

E100 - E199: Colours

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
46 Colours.
E100 Y Y Y VD Curcumin
orange-yellow color
Derived from the root of the curcuma (turmeric) plant, but can be artificially produced; used in cheese, margarine, baked sweets and fish fingers
E101 Y Y Y PAD Riboflavin
lactoflavin, vitamin B2
Occurs naturally in green vegetables, eggs, milk, liver and kidney; used in margarine and cheese
E101a Y Y Y PAD Riboflavin-5’-phosphate Occurs naturally in green vegetables, eggs, milk, liver and kidney; used in margarine and cheese
E102 N ? ? SY Tartrazine
FD&C Yellow No.5
Known to provoke asthma attacks and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA estimates 1:10 000); also linked to thyroid tumors, chromosomal damage, urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to aspirin sensitivity; used to colour drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack foods, canned fish, packaged soups; banned in Norway and Austria
E104 N ? ? Quinoline Yellow
FD&C Yellow No.10
Used in lipsticks hair products, colognes; also in a wide range of medications; cause dermatitis; banned in Australia, USA and Norway
E107 N ? ? Yellow 7G
yellow color
People who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical products are soft drinks; banned in Australia and USA
E110 N ? ? SY Sunset Yellow FCF
Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow No.6
Used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks and canned fish; synthetic; also in many medications including Berocca, Polaramine, Ventolin syrup; side effects are urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose), nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, kidney tumors, chromosomal damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food; seen increased incidence of tumours in animals; banned in Norway
E120 N ? ? AD Cochineal
Carminic acid, Carmines
Red coloring, made from crushed beatles; rarely used.
E122 N ? ? Azorubine
Carmoisine
Red color; coal tar derivative; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; typical products are confectionary, marzipan, jelly crystals; banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway
E123 N N ? Amaranth
FD&C Red No.2
Derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name; used in cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals; can provoke asthma, eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer; banned in the USA, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries
E124 N ? ? SY Ponceau 4R
Cochineal Red A, FD&C Red No.4
Synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; banned in USA & Norway
E127 N ? ? Erythrosine
FD&C Red No.3
Red color used in cherries, canned fruit, custard mix, sweets, bakery, snack foods; can cause sensitivity to light; can increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990; banned in January 1990; banned in Norway
E128 N ? ? Red 2G Banned in Australia and many other places except UK
E129 N ? ? SY Allura Red AC
FD&C Red No.40
Orange-red color used in sweets, drinks and condiments, medications and cosmetics, synthetic; introduced in the early eighties to replace amaranth which was considered not safe due to conflicting test results; allura red has also been connected with cancer in mice; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Norway
E131 N ? ? Patent Blue V Banned in Australia, USA and Norway
E132 N ? ? SY Indigotine
Indigo carmine, FD&C Blue No.2
Commonly added to tablets and capsules; also used in ice cream, sweets, baked goods, confectionary, biscuits, synthetic coal tar derivative; may cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions. banned in Norway
E133 N ? ? SY Brilliant blue FCF
FD&C Blue Dye No.1
Used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually occurring as aluminum lake (solution) or ammonium salt; banned in Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Norway
E140 Y Y Y Chlorophylis
Chlorophyllins
Green color occurs naturally in all plants; used for dyeing waxes and oils, used in medicines and cosmetics
E141 Y Y Y Copper complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins Olive color, no adverse effects are known
E142 N ? ? SY Green S Green color; synthetic coal tar derivative; used in canned peas, mint jelly and sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes; banned inSweden, USA and Norway
E150a Y N Y Caramel
Plain Caramel
Dark brown color derived from sucrose; Used in soft drinks; oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces; beer, whiskey, biscuits and pickles.
E150b N N ? Caustic sulphite caramel Dark brown color derived from sucrose; Used in soft drinks; oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces; beer, whiskey, biscuits and pickles.
E150c N N ? Ammonia caramel Dark brown color derived from sucrose; Used in soft drinks; oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces; beer, whiskey, biscuits and pickles.
E150d N N ? Sulphite ammonia caramel Dark brown color derived from sucrose; Used in soft drinks; oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces; beer, whiskey, biscuits and pickles.
E151 N ? ? Brilliant Black BN
Black PN
Colour; coal tar derivative; used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes; banned in Denmark, Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway
E153 Y Y Y PAD Vegetable carbon Black colour, charcoal pigment; used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice; only the vegetable derived variety permitted in Australia, banned in the United States
E154 N ? ? Brown FK Banned in USA
E155 N ? ? Brown HT
Brown HT (Chocolate)
Brown color, coal tar and azo dye; used in chocolate cake mixes; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce skin sensitivity; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway
E160a Y Y Y Carotene
alpha-, beta-, gamma-
Orange-yellow colour; human body converts it to ‘Vitamin A’ in the liver, found in carrots and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables
E160b Y Y Y Annatto
(Arnatto, Annato), bixin, norbixin
Red color; derived from a tree (Bixa orellana); used as a body paint, fabric dye, digestive aid and expectorant; used to dye cheese, butter, margarine, cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes; known to cause urticaria (nettle rash), the HACSG* recommends to avoid it
E160c Y Y Y Paprika extract
capsanthin, capsorubin
E160d Y Y Y Lycopene Red coloured carotenoid found in tomatoes and pink grapefruit, can cause decreasing risk of cancer
E160e Y Y Y Beta-apo-8’-carotenal (C 30) Orange color, no adverse effects are known
E160f Y Y Y Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8’-carotenic acid (C 30) Orange color, no adverse effects are known
E161b Y Y Y PAD Lutein
Xanthophylls - Lutein
Yellow color derived from plants, naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg yolks
E161g Y Y Y PAD Canthaxanthin
Xanthophylls - Canthaxanthin
Yellow color possibly derived from animal sources (retinol); the pigment is found in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers
E162 Y Y Y Beetroot Red
Betanin
Purple color derived from beets; no adverse effects are known
E163 Y Y Y Anthocyanins Violet color matter of flowers and plants; seems safe
E170 Y Y Y MD Calcium carbonate Mineral salt, used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders; may be derived from rock mineral or animal bones; sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm canned fruit and veg.; toxic at ‘high doses’
E171 Y Y Y MD Titanium dioxide White color used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways; no adverse effects are known
E172 Y Y Y MD Iron oxides and hydroxides Black, yellow, red color used in salmon and shrimp pastes; toxic at ‘high doses’
E173 N ? ? MD Aluminium
E174 Y Y Y MD Silver
E175 Y Y Y MD Gold
E180 N ? ? Latolrubine BK
E181 Y ? ? Tannic acid Tannins, clarifying agent in alcohol; derived from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees; occurs naturally in tea

E200 - E299: Preservatives

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
50 Preservatives.
E200 ? ? ? Sorbic acid Either obtained from berries or synthesised from ketene; possible skin irritant
E201 ? ? ? Sodium sorbate
E202 ? ? ? Potassium sorbate
E203 ? ? ? Calcium sorbate
E210 ? ? ? Benzoic acid, also known as flowers of benzoin, phenlycarboxylic acid
carboxybenzene
Added to alcoholic beverages, baked goods, cheeses, gum, condiments, frozen dairy, relishes, soft sweets, cordials and sugar substitutes; used in cosmetics, as an antiseptic in many cough medications and an antifungal in ointments; can cause asthma, especially in those dependant on steroid asthma medications, is also reputed to cause neurological disorders and to react with sulphur bisulphite (222), shown to provoke hyperactivity in children; obtained from Benzoin, a resin exuded by trees native to Asia
E211 N Y ? Sodium benzoate Used as antiseptic, as a food preservative and to disguise taste, as of poor-quality food; orange soft drinks contain a high amount of it, upto 25mg per 250ml; also in milk and meat products, relishes and condiments, baked goods and lollies; used in many oral medications including Actifed, Phenergan and Tylenol; known to causes nettle rash and aggravate asthma
E212 N ? ? Potassium benzoate People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions. for using see 210
E213 N ? ? Calcium benzoate See 212
E214 N ? ? Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E215 N ? ? Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E216 N ? ? Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate Possible contact allergen
E217 N ? ? Sodium propyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E218 N ? ? Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate Allergic reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin
E219 N ? ? Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E220 N ? ? Sulphur dioxide Derived from coal tar; all sulphur drugs are toxic and restricted in use (in USA, FDA** prohibits their use on raw fruits and vegetables), produced by combustion of sulphur or gypsum; known to provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1; typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products
E221 ? Y ? Sodium sulphite Decontaminating agent used in fresh orange juice
E222 ? Y ? Sodium hydrogen sulphite See E220
E223 ? Y ? Sodium metabisulphite Treating agent, see E220
E224 ? Y ? Potassium metabisulphite See E220
E225 ? Y ? Potassium sulphite See E220
E226 N Y ? Calcium sulphite
E227 N Y ? Calcium hydrogen sulphite
E228 ? Y ? Potassium hydrogen sulphite See 220
E230 N ? ? Biphenyl
Diphenyl
Banned in some countries; can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are citrus fruit
E231 N ? ? Orthophenyl phenol Banned in some countries; can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potatoe, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines
E232 ? ? ? Sodium orthophenyl phenol Banned in some countries; can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potatoe, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines
E233 N ? ? Thiabendazole Banned in some countries, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are citrus fruits, apples, pears, potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, meat, milk
E234 ? ? ? Nisin Antibiotic derived from bacteria; found in beer, processed cheese products, tomato paste
E235 ? ? ? Natamycin Mould inhibitor derived from bacteria; sometimes used medically to treat candidiasis; can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin irritation;.typical products are meat, cheese
E236 N ? ? Formic acid
E237 N ? ? PAD Sodium formate
E238 N ? ? PAD Calcium formate
E239 N ? ? Hexamethylene tetramine
E249 ? ? ? Potassium nitrite Colour fixative and curing agent for meat; nitrites can effect the body’s ability to carry oxygen, resulting in shortness of breath, dizziness and headaches; potential carcinogen; not permitted in foods for infant and young children
E250 N ? ? Sodium nitrite May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions, potentially carcinogenic, restricted in many countries, can combine with chemicals in stomach to form nitrosamine, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it
E251 ? ? ? Sodium nitrate Also used in the manufacture of nitric acid, as a fertiliser and in fermented meat products (see 250)
E252 ? ? ? Potassium nitrate May be derived from waste animal or vegetable matter; used in gunpowder, explosives and fertilisers, and in the preservation of meat; may provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions; potentially carcinogenic; restricted in many countries (see 249)
E260 ? ? ? VD Acetic acid Main component of vinegar, synthetically produced from wood fibres; used in pickles, chutneys, and sauces
E261 N ? ? Potassium acetate Food acid; should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function; typical products are sauces, pickles
E262 ? ? ? Sodium acetate
Sodium diacetate
Food acid, acidity regulator;
E263 ? ? ? PAP Calcium acetate Food acid, acidity regulator; by product in the manufacture of wood alcohol; used to make acetic acid (vinegar) and in the production of dyers mordants
E264 ? ? ? Ammonium acetate Can cause nausea and vomiting
E270 ? ? ? AP Lactic acid Food acid, acidity regulator; produced by heating and fermenting carbohydrates in milk whey, potatoes, cornstarch or molasses; difficult for babies to metabolise; used in sweets, dressings, soft drinks (sometimes beer) infant formulas and confectionary
E280 ? ? ? Propionic acid All propionates are thought to be linked with migraine headaches; propionates occur naturally in fermented foods, human perspiration and ruminants digestive tract, also can be derived commercially from ethylene and carbon monoxide or propionaldehyde or natural gas or fermented wood pulp; produced when bacteria decompose fibre; commonly used in bread and flour products;
E281 ? ? ? Sodium propionate May be linked to migraines, typical products are flour products
E282 ? ? ? Calcium propionate May be linked to migraines, typical products are flour products
E283 ? ? ? Potassium propionate May be linked to migraines, typical products are flour products
E290 Y Y Y MD Carbon dioxide Propellant, coolant, derived from lime manufacture; may increase the effect of alcohol; typical products are wine, soft drinks, confectionary
E296 N Y ? PSY Malic acid Derived from fruit or synthetic; infants and young children should avoid it
E297 Y Y ? Fumaric acid Derived from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis or from the fermentation of glucose with fungi; can be used to flavour, acidify, as an antioxidant or raising agentused in soft drinks and cake mixes

E300 - E399: Antioxidants & Acidity Regulators

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
52 Antioxidants & Acidity Regulators.
E300 Y Y ? PSY Ascorbic acid Flour treating agent, ‘vitamin C’; may be made synthetically from glucose, naturally occurs in fruit and vegetables; added to products as diverse as cured meat, breakfast cereals, frozen fish and wine
E301 Y Y ? Sodium ascorbate Sodium salt of vitamin C
E302 Y Y ? Calcium ascorbate
vitamin C
Calcium salt of vitamin C, may increase the formation of calcium axalate stones
E303 Y Y ? Potassium ascorbate Potassium salt of vitamin C
E304 Y Y ? Ascorbyl palmitate
Ascorbyl stearate
Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, same function as E300
E306 Y Y ? VP Tocopherol-rich extract Antioxidant. Found in many vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize; works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats, preventing vitamin A from oxidation; used in margarine and salad dressings
E307 Y Y ? SY alpha-tocopherol Antioxidant. Found in many vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize; works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats, preventing vitamin A from oxidation; used in margarine and salad dressings
E308 Y Y ? SY gamma-tocopherol Antioxidant. Found in many vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize; works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats, preventing vitamin A from oxidation; used in margarine and salad dressings
E309 Y Y ? SY delta-tocopherol Antioxidant. Found in many vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize; works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats, preventing vitamin A from oxidation; used in margarine and salad dressings
E310 ? ? ? VD Propyl gallate Used to prevent rancidity in oily substances; derived from nutgalls; may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia; used in oils, margarine, lard and salad dressings, sometimes used in packaging
E311 ? ? ? VD Octyl gallate Used to prevent rancidity in oily substances; derived from nutgalls; may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia; used in oils, margarine, lard and salad dressings, sometimes used in packaging
E312 ? ? ? VD Dodecyl gallate Used to prevent rancidity in oily substances; derived from nutgalls; may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia; used in oils, margarine, lard and salad dressings, sometimes used in packaging
E317 ? ? ? VD Erythorbic acid Produced from sucrose
E318 ? ? ? SY Sodium erythorbate Produced from Erythorbic acid (E317) which is derived from sucrose
E319 N ? ? SY Tert-ButylHydroQuinone (TBHQ) Petroleum based; May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. Typical products are fats, oils, margarine
E320 N ? ? SY Butylated hydroxy-anisole (BHA) Petroleum derivative, retards spoilage due to oxidation; used in edible oils, chewing gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products, polyethylene food wraps; not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects, in large doses caused tumors in lab animals.
E321 N ? ? SY Butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT) Petroleum derivative; see E320
E322 ? ? ? PAP Lecithins Emulsifier derived from soy beans, egg yolks, peanuts, corn or animal resources; non toxic but overdose can upset the stomach, kill the appetite and cause profuse sweating; used to allow combination of oils in margarine, chocolate, mayonnaise, milk powder; must be choosen vegetable type
E325 ? N ? AP Sodium lactate Derived from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process, young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E326 ? N ? AP Potassium lactate Derived from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process, young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E327 ? N ? AP Calcium lactate Derived from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process, young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E328 ? N ? AP Ammonium lactate Derived from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process, young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E329 ? N ? AP Magnesium lactate Derived from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process, young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E330 Y Y ? VD Citric acid Food acid, naturally derived from citrus fruit, used in biscuits, canned fish, cheese and processed cheese products, infant formulas, cake and soup mixes, rye bread, soft drinks, fermented meat products
E331 Y Y ? Sodium citrates Food acid;
E332 Y Y ? Potassium citrates Food acid;
E333 Y Y ? Calcium citrates Food acid; in small quantities
E334 Y Y ? Tartaric acid Food acid, obtained from unripe fruit, grape juice; in small quantities
E335 Y Y ? Sodium tartrates Food acid;
E336 Y Y ? Potassium tartrates Food acid;
E337 Y Y ? Sodium potassium tartrate Food acid;
E338 Y Y ? Phosphoric acid Food acid, derived from phosphate ore; used in cheese products;
E339 Y Y ? MD Sodium phosphates Mineral salt, used as a laxative and a fixing agent in textile dyeing; high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
E340 ? ? ? MD Potassium phosphates Mineral salt, used as a laxative and a fixing agent in textile dyeing; high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
E341 ? ? ? MD Calcium phosphates Mineral salt found in rocks and bones; used in medicines as an antacid and polishing agent in enamels
E343 ? ? ? MD Magnesium phosphates Essential mineral, anticaking agent found in salt substitutes
E350 ? ? ? Sodium malates
E351 ? ? ? Potassium malate
E352 ? ? ? Calcium malates
E353 ? ? ? Metatartaric acid
E354 ? ? ? Calcium tartrate
E355 ? ? ? Adipic acid Food acid from the root adipose (pertaining to fat?)
E357 ? ? ? Potassium adipate
E363 N ? ? Succinic acid
E365 ? ? ? VD Sodium fumarate Food acid, salt of fumaric acid (derived from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis)
E366 ? ? ? Potassium fumarate
E367 ? ? ? Calcium fumarate
E370 N ? ? 1,4-Heptonolactone
E375 ? ? ? Niacin
vitamin B3
Naturally occurs in bean, pea and other legumes, milk, egg, meat, poultry, and fish; at doses in excess of 1,000 mg per day can cause liver damage, diabetes, gastritis, eye damage, and elevated blood levels of uric acid (which can cause gout); at amounts as low as 50-100 mg may cause flushing (harmless but painful), headache, and stomachache especially if taken on an empty stomach
E380 ? ? ? Tri-ammonium citrate May interfere with liver and pancreas function
E381 ? ? ? VD Ammonium ferric citrates Essential mineral, food acid derived from citric acid; used as a dietary iron supplement in breakfast cereals and dietary formulas
E385 N ? ? Calcium disodium EDTA

E400 - E499: Thickeners, Stabilizers & Emulsifiers

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
67 Thickeners, Stabilizers & Emulsifiers.
E400 ? N ? Alginic acid Thickener and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
E401 ? N ? Sodium alginate Thickener and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
E402 ? N ? Potassium alginate Thickener and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
E403 ? N ? Ammonium alginate Thickener and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
E404 ? N ? Calcium alginate Thickener and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
E405 ? N ? Propylene glycol alginate Thickener and vegetable gum, derived from petroleum; see separate entry
E406 ? N ? Agar Thickener and vegetable gum derived from red seaweed; sometimes used as a laxative, found in manufactured meats and ice cream
E407 N N ? Carrageenan A fibre extracted from seaweed, it has recently been linked with cancer because it may become contaminated when ethylene oxide is added to an inferior product, this results in ethylene chlorohydrin forming, a highly carcinogenic compound; linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious concerns relate to degraded carrageenan, which is not a permitted additive; however, native carrageenan, which is used, may become degraded in the gut
E410 ? N ? Locust bean gum Derived from Carob or Locust bean tree Ceratonia siliqua; used in lollies, cordials, essences, some flour products, dressings, fruit juice drinks; frequently used as a caffeine-free chocolate substitute; may lower cholesterol levels
E412 ? N ? Guar gum Derived from the seeds of Cyamoposis tetragonolobus of Indian origin; fed to cattle in the US; can cause nausea, flatulence and cramps, may reduced cholesterol levels
E413 ? N ? Tragacanth Resin form the tree Astragalus gummifer; used in foods, drugs including nasal solutions, elixirs and tablets; also used as a binder in cosmetics; possible contact allergy
E414 ? N ? Acacia Derived from the sap of Acacia Sengal; easily broken down by the human digestive system; possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes
E415 ? N ? Xanthan gum Derived from the fermentation of corn sugar with a bacterium
E416 ? N ? Karaya gum Derived from the tree Sterculia urens; often used in conjunction with Carob (E 410), in ice cream, custard and sweets, as a filler for its capability to multiply its volume by 100 times with the additon of water; possible allergen
E417 ? N ? Tara gum Derived from the tara bush, Caesalpinia Spinosa is indigenous to Equador and Peru and is grown in Kenya
E420 ? N N Sorbitol Artificial sweetener and humectant; derived from glucose, either obtained from berries or synthesised; used in lollies, dried fruit, pastries, confectionary, low calorie foods, pharmecuetical syrups and opthalmic preparations and is the seventh most widely used preservative in cosmetics; not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance
E421 ? N N Mannitol Artificial sweetener and humectant; derived from seaweed or the manna ash tree; possible allergen, not permitted in infant foods due to its ability to cause diarrhea and kidney dysfunction, also may cause nausea, vomiting; typical products are low calorie foods
E422 ? ? N AD Glycerol Humectant and sweetener; oily colourless alcohol; derived by decomposition of natural fats with alkalis; usually as a by-product of soap making using animal fat or vegetable oil; can be obtained from petroleum products sometimes synthesised from propylene or fermented from sugar; used in flexible coatings on sausages and cheeses, also in crystallised and dried fruit, liqueurs and vodka. Glycerin has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by tumor promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation, presumably via free radical scavenging; large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels. typical products are liquers, confectionary, dried fruit, low calorie foods
E425 ? ? ? Konjac (i) Konjac gum (ii) Konjac glucomannane. Emulsifier.
E430 ? ? N PAD Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate Emulsifier, stabiliser.
E431 ? ? N PAD Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate Emulsifier.
E432 N ? N PAD Polysorbate 20
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate
Emulsifiers derived from animal fatty acids; used as sythetic flavourings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E433 ? ? N PAD Polysorbate 80
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate
Emulsifiers derived from animal fatty acids; used as sythetic flavourings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E434 N ? N PAD Polysorbate 40
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate
Emulsifiers derived from animal fatty acids; used as sythetic flavourings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E435 ? ? N PAD Polyoxyethylene (20)
sorbitan monostearate - Polysorbate 60
Emulsifiers derived from animal fatty acids; used as sythetic flavourings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E436 ? ? N PAD Polyoxyethylene (20)
sorbitan tristearate - Polysorbate 65
Emulsifiers derived from animal fatty acids; used as sythetic flavourings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E440a ? N ? Pectin Naturally occurring in the skins of apples; used to thicken jams, jellies and sauces; large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
E440b ? N ? Amidated pectin
E441 ? ? ? Gelatine Possible allergen, may contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites beware!
E442 ? ? ? Ammonium phosphatides
E450 ? ? ? Diphosphates High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium
E451 ? ? ? Triphosphates Pentasodium Triphosphate, Pentapotassium Triphosphate
E452 ? ? ? Polyphosphates iSodium Polyphosphate, (ii)Potassium Polyphosphate, (iii)Sodium Calcium Polyphosphate, (iv)Calcium Polyphosphates, I Sodium Hexametaphosphate
E459 ? ? ? Beta-cyclodextrine
E460 ? ? ? Cellulose Anti-caking agent; no adverse effects known
E461 ? ? ? Methyl cellulose Can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction
E463 N ? ? Hydroxypropyl cellulose
E464 ? ? ? Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose
E465 ? ? ? Ethyl methyl cellulose
E466 ? ? ? Carboxy methyl cellulose
Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose
E468 ? ? ? Cross linked sodium carboxy methyl cellulose Sweeteners
E469 ? ? ? PAP Sodium caseinate Emulsifier
E470a N ? ? PAD Fatty acids salts Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids. Emulsifier & Anti-caking agent
E470b N ? ? PAD Fatty acids salts Magnesium salts of fatty acids
E471 ? ? ? PAD Mono- & di- glycerides of fatty acids
E472a ? ? ? PAD Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids. Emulsifier.
E472b ? ? ? PAD Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472c ? ? ? PAD Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472d ? ? ? PAD Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472e ? ? ? PAD Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472f ? ? ? PAD Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E473 ? N ? PAD Sucrose esters of fatty acids Emulsifier
E474 N N ? PAD Sucroglycerides Emulsifier
E475 ? ? N PAD Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
E476 ? ? N PAD Polyglycerol polyricinoleate
E477 ? ? N PAD Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids Derived from petroleum;
E478 ? ? N PAD Lactylated fatty acid esters of gylcerol and propane-1,2-diol
E479b ? ? ? PAD Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E480 ? ? ? Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate
E481 ? ? ? PAD Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate Emulsifier
E482 ? ? ? PAD Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate Emulsifier
E483 N ? ? PAD Stearyl tartrate Emulsifier
E491 ? ? ? PAD Sorbitan monostearate Emulsifier
E492 ? ? ? PAD Sorbitan tristearate May increase th absorption of fat-soluble substances
E493 N ? ? PAD Sorbitan monolaurate
E494 N ? ? PAD Sorbitan mono-oleate
E495 N ? ? PAD Sorbitan monopalmitate

E500 - E599: Acidity Regulators & Anti-Caking Agents

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
49 Acidity Regulators & Anti-Caking Agents.
E500 ? ? ? MD Sodium carbonates
E501 ? ? ? MD Potassium carbonates
E503 ? ? ? MD Ammonium carbonates Irritant to mucous membranes
E504 ? ? ? MD Magnesium carbonate Medically used as an antacid and laxative
E507 ? ? ? MD Hydrochloric acid Safe in small quantities
E508 ? ? ? MD Potassium chloride Large quantities can cause gastric ulceration
E509 ? ? ? MD Calcium chloride Derived from brine
E510 N ? ? MD Ammonium chloride Should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function. Typical products are flour products
E511 ? ? ? MD Magnesium chloride Magnesium is an essential mineral
E513 N ? ? MD Sulphuric acid
E514 ? ? ? MD Sodium sulphates May upset the body’s water balance
E515 ? ? ? MD Potassium sulphates
E516 ? ? ? MD Calcium sulphate Derived from limestone
E518 ? ? ? MD Magnesium sulphate A laxative
E519 ? ? ? MD Copper sulphate Essential mineral
E520 N ? ? MD Aluminium sulfate Firming Agent
E521 N ? ? MD Aluminium sodium sulfate Acidity regulator
E522 N ? ? MD Aluminium potassium sulfate Acidity regulator
E523 N ? ? MD Aluminium ammonium sulfate Acidity regulator
E524 N ? ? MD Sodium hydroxide Acidity regulator
E525 N ? ? MD Potassium hydroxide Acidity regulator
E526 ? ? ? MD Calcium hydroxide Firming Agent. No adverse effects in small quantities
E527 N ? ? MD Ammonium hydroxide Acidity regulator
E528 N ? ? MD Magnesium hydroxide Acidity regulator
E529 ? ? ? MD Calcium oxide Acidity regulator, Improving agent
E530 N ? ? MD Magnesium oxide Acidity regulator
E535 ? ? ? MD Sodium ferrocyanide Acidity regulator, Improving agent
E536 ? ? ? SY Potassium ferrocyanide By-product of coal gas production; low toxicity
E540 N ? ? MD Dicalcium diphosphate Acidity regulator
E541 N ? ? MD Sodium aluminium phosphate
Acidic
Emulsifier
E542 ? ? ? AD Edible Bone phosphate Anti-caking agent; Derived from bones; used in dried milk for coffee machines
E544 N ? ? MD Calcium polyphosphates Emulsifier
E545 N ? ? MD Ammonium polyphosphates Emulsifier
E551 ? ? ? MD Silicon dioxide No adverse effects are known in food use
E552 ? ? ? MD Calcium silicate Derived from limestone and diatomaceous earth (the silicified skeletons of diatoms, a single celled plankton), antacid;
E553a N ? ? MD Magnesium silicates Anti-caking agent; (i) Magnesium silicate (ii), Magnesium trisilicate
E553b N ? ? MD Talc Anti-caking agent; typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionary
E554 ? ? ? MD Sodium aluminium silicate Anti-caking agent; Used in salt, dried milk substitutes and flours
E556 ? ? ? MD Calcium aluminium silicate Anti-caking agent; Used in salt, dried milk substitutes and flours.
E558 ? ? ? MD Bentonite Anti-caking agent
E559 ? ? ? MD Aluminium silicate (Kaolin) Anti-caking agent
E570 ? ? ? PAD Stearic acid Anti-caking agent. Possibly of animal origin; see stearates
E572 ? ? ? PAD Magnesium stearate Emulsifier, Anti-caking agent
E575 ? ? ? Glucono delta-lactone Acidity regulator, Sequestrant
E576 N ? ? Sodium gluconate Sequestrant
E577 ? ? ? Potassium gluconate Sequestrant
E578 ? ? ? Calcium gluconate Firming Agent
E579 ? ? ? Ferrous gluconate Colour-retention agent; derived from iron and glucose; used in olives, iron supplements; safe in small amounts
E585 ? ? ? PAP Ferrous lactate Colouring

E600 - E699: Flavour Enhancers

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
15 Flavour Enhancers.
E620 N ? ? Glutamic acid Flavour enhancer, salt substitute; amino acid present in many animal and vegetable proteins, derived commercially from bacteria; might cause similar problems as MSG(621), young children should avoid it
E621 ? ? ? Monosodium glutamate
MSG
Flavour enhancer derived from the fermentation of molasses, salt substitute; adverse effects appear in some asthmatic people, not permitted in foods for infants and young children; typical products are canned vegetables, canned tuna, dressings, many frozen foods
E622 ? ? ? Monopotassium glutamate Can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps; typical products are low sodium salt substitutes
E623 ? ? ? Calcium diglutamate Salt substitute,
E624 ? ? ? Monoammonium glutamate Salt substitute,
E625 ? ? ? Magnesium diglutamate Salt substitute,
E626 ? ? ? Guanylic acid May trigger gout
E627 ? ? ? PAD Disodium guanylate Sodium Guanylate, Flavour enhancer. Isolated from sardines or yeast extract; may trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E629 ? ? ? Calcium guanylate May trigger gout
E631 ? ? ? AD Disodium inosinate May be prepared from meat or sardines; may trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E633 ? ? ? Calcium inosinate May trigger gout
E635 N ? ? PAD Disodium 5’-ribonucleotide May be associated with itchy skin rashes up to 30 hours after ingestion; rashes may vary from mild to dramatic; the reaction is dose-related and cumulative, some individuals are more sensitive than others; typical foods include flavoured chips, instant noodles and party pies.
E636 ? ? ? PSY Maltol Derived from the bark of larch trees, pine needles, chicory wood, oils and roasted malt; it may be produced synthetically
E637 ? ? ? Ethyl maltol Derived from maltol
E640 ? ? ? PAD Glycine
Glycine & its sodium salt
Flavour enhancer

E900 - E999: Glazing Agents & Sweeteners

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
24 Glazing Agents & Sweeteners.
E900 ? ? ? Dimethyl polysiloxane Silicone based
E901 Y Y ? AP Beeswaxes Glazing agent, used to wax fruit; see bee products; occasionally causes allergic reactions
E903 Y Y ? Carnauba wax
Carnauba
Derived from a South American palm; used in cosmetics and inks, and to wax fruit; occasionally causes allergic reactions
E904 Y Y ? AD Shellac Derived from insects; occasionally causes irritations of the skin
E905 N ? ? Paraffins
Microcrystalline wax
May inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative, there may be a link to bowel cancer; used on sweets, in processing yeast, vitamin tablets, dried fruit, confectionary, collagen
E907 N ? ? Refined microcrystalline wax
E913 ? ? ? Lanolin Derived from sheep wool
E920 ? ? ? AD L-Cysteine hydrochloride Flour treatment agent derived from animal hair and chicken feathers
E921 ? ? ? AD L-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate Flour treatment agent derived from animal hair and chicken feathers
E924 ? ? ? Potassium bromate Large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain. Typical products are flour products
E925 ? ? ? Chlorine Typical products are flour products. Possible health concerns.
E926 ? ? ? Chlorine dioxide Typical products are flour products. Possible health concerns
E927 N ? ? Azodicarbonamide
E928 N ? ? Benzoyl peroxide Approved by FDA* for bleaching the carotenoids in refined flours; asthmatics and people with a history of allergies should avoid.
E931 ? Y ? Nitrogen Inert gas used in freezing and vacuum packing.
E932 ? Y ? Nitrous oxide Laughing Gas. Safe in small quantities
E950 N ? ? SY Acesulphane potassium Acesulfame K, Artificial Sweetener
E951 N ? ? SY Aspartame Artificial sweetener, too many adverse effects possible to list, some people are allergic to aspartame, migraine headaches a common reaction in these people
E952 N ? ? SY Cyclamic acid
calcium & sodium cyclamate
Artificial sweetener; known to cause migraines and other reactions, can be carcinogenic, caused damage ot rats testicles and mouse embriyos in tests, banned in the US and UK due its links with cancer
E954 N Y ? SY Saccharines
calcium & sodium saccharin
Artificial sweetener derived from toluene (a known carcinogen); banned in 1977 in the US, but reinstated subject to strict labelling starting: Use of this product may be hazardous to your health, this product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals
E957 ? ? ? VD Thaumatin Artificial sweetener, a protein derived from the tropical plant Thaumococcus danielli; used to sweeten wines, bread and fruit
E965 Y N ? VD Maltitol
Hydrogenated glucose syrup
Humectant, starch decomposed with digestive enzymes; used in confectionery, dried fruits, low-joule foods; laxative in high concentrations
E967 Y ? ? VD Xylitol Humectant, found in raspberries, plums, lettuce and endives, though produced for commercial purposes from wood pulp; used in low-joule foods and carbohydratemodified sweets, icecream and jams
E999 Y ? ? VD Quillaia extract Foaming agent, emulsifier, natural surfactant; derived from chilean soap bark tree (Quillaia Saponaria); used in beer and soda; known to promote healing and reduce excessive oilness in the skin

E1100 - E1199: Other Chemicals

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
2 Other Chemicals.
E1103 Y ? ? Invertase Stabiliser
E1100 ? N ? PAP Amylase Derived from mold mushroom or pig pancreas

E1200 - E1299: Other Chemicals

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
3 Other Chemicals.
E1200 ? N ? Polydextrose Seems safe in small doses
E1201 ? ? ? SY Polyvinylpyrrolidone Dispersing agent, coating for tablets; used in artificial sweeteners
E1202 ? ? ? SY Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Clarifying agent for wine, colour and colloidal stabiliser

E1400 - E1499: Starches

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
18 Starches.
E1400 ? N ? Dextrin Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1401 ? N ? VD Modified starch Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1402 ? N ? VD Alkaline modified starch Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1403 ? N ? VD Bleached starch Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1404 ? N ? VD Oxidized starch Emulsifier and Thickening agent
E1410 ? N ? VD Monostarch phosphate Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1412 ? N ? VD Distarch phosphate Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1413 ? N ? VD Phosphated distarch phosphate Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1414 ? N ? VD Acetylated distarch phosphate Emulsifier and Thickening agent
E1420 ? N ? VD Acetylated starch
mono starch acetate
Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1421 ? N ? VD Acetylated starch
mono starch acetate
Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1422 ? N ? VD Acetylated distarch adipate Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1423 ? N ? VD Distarch glycerine Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1440 ? N ? VD Hydroxy propyl starch Emulsifier and Thickening agent
E1441 ? N ? VD Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1442 ? N ? VD Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1450 ? N ? VD Starch sodium octenyl succinate Emulsifier, Stabiliser and Thickening agent
E1451 ? N ? Acetylated oxidised starch Emulsifier and Thickening agent

E1500 - E1599: Other Chemicals

# Generally OK SCD OK FODMAPs OK Origin Name Comment
5 Other Chemicals.
E1505 ? ? ? Triethyl citrate Foam Stabiliser, used in dried Egg Whites and as a carrier solvent.
E1510 ? ? ? Ethanol Alcohol
E1517 ? ? N Glycerol acetates Humectant and solvent derived from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US
E1518 ? ? N PAD Glyceryl triacetate (triacetin) Humectant and solvent derived from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US
E1520 ? ? N Propylene glycol Humectant, wetting agent, dispersing agent, petroleum based; its glycerin like taste has made it popular for children’s medications and other elixirs; used in many topical creams and ointments, cosmetics, hair products and deodorants.